Works of the Morton Potteries are fairly difficult to identify
because "Morton Potteries" actually encompasses several different
companies, all located at one time or another in Morton, Illinois.
The first clay operation in Morton was established in
1877 by six brothers from Germany: Andrew, Barthol, Christian, John, Samuel,
and Matthew Rapp. The Rapp brothers operated Rapp Brothers Brick and Tile
Company and the Morton Pottery works until 1915, when Samuel and Christian
renamed the brick operation Morton Brick and Tile Company. Andrew had
died in 1911, John retired, and Matthew and Barthol had left the pottery.
Four of Andrew's sons took over the pottery side of the business and named
it the Morton Earthenware Company. Production ceased in 1917 due to World
In 1920 Matthew Rapp and his four sons opened Cliftwood
Art Potteries, Inc. on the same property as the previous business. Production
moved from the old utilitarian works to more decorative pieces. Matthew
died in 1938, leaving his sons John, Carl, Lawrence, and Theodore to run
the pottery. Although each son was very competent in different aspects
of pottery making, none had the drive to continue the business without
their father so they sold the pottery in 1940 to some businessmen from
nearby Peoria, while staying on at the newly formed Midwest Pottery to
continue in their specialties. Several changes of management ensued, and
the Rapp brothers left disillusioned in 1943. The pottery was destroyed
by fire the following year.
The four brothers came back together in 1947 and opened
the American Art Potteries (AAP). The management they hired got the pottery
into trouble in the 1960's, when the pottery was seized by the IRS and
put up for auction for non-payment of taxes.
The American Art Potteries molds and equipment were
bought by Morton Pottery Company, which was established in 1922 by Andrew's
sons (headed up by son Danie and William) as an evolution of the Morton
Earthenware Company. Soon after the pottery was up an running, Daniel
left to become a furniture maker, while his brothers Andrew, Henry, Nathan,Solomon,
and Samuel joined their brother William at the pottery. Although plagued
with fires over the years, the pottery managed to turn out large numbers
of beer steins (post-prohibition, of course), political memorabilia, lamp
bases, and art pottery. The late 50's and early 60's brought labor problems
and competition from Japanese imports. Deaths of two of the siblings in
1969 caused the remaining family to sell the pottery. After the sale,
Morton Pottery continued under the same name with a third generation Rapp,
Henry Jr., heading up plant operations. Bankruptcy followed in 1971, followed
by another sale. The art pottery lines were phased out, replaced by inserts
for Rival crock pot cookers, until the plant finally closed in 1976.
This is a hard one. Because the Morton Potteries comprises
several different companies, there really isn't a rule-of-thumb one can
use to tell whether a piece is or isn't Morton. A good reference book,
like the book from Doris and Burdell Hall, is a must for positive identification
many Morton pieces.
The earliest Morton Potteries concentrated on Rockingham,
Yellow Ware, and Earthenware. Cliftwood Art Potteries ushered in an era
of relatively high-end art pottery, including vases, flower bowls, and
a whole host of lamp bases. The remaining potteries appeared to concentrate
more on common, inexpensive pieces of art pottery - the kind that would
be purchased in Kresges, Sears, and the like.
The Midwest Potteries and American Art Potteries often
used stickers, shown in Figure 1, to mark their wares. This makes identification
difficult since the stickers are often removed.
Of all the potteries located in Morton, the Morton Pottery
Company is probably the easiest to identify. Some flowerpots from this
pottery are shown in Figure 2. Many planters were marked "Morton
USA" (Figure 3), and there is a fairly consistent "look and
feel" to Morton Pottery that isn't evident in the other Morton companies.
Morton Pottery is typically heavy, as illustrated in Figure 4, and is
often heavier than Brush or McCoy (although it could be easily mistaken
for either). Glazes are similar to their contemporaries with blue, green,
and yellow being popular colors.
It is not easy to tell you have a Morton pottery animal
just by a look and feel. As shown in Figure 5, they made a wide variety
of animals over the years and there was much overlap between the companies.
I picked up a pottery pig (Figure 6) a little while back that was almost
light enough to be a "Made in Japan" planter. However, much
to my surprise, it had a "Norwood" sticker, used by the American
Art Pottery in Morton. Although the pig was not pictured in the reference
book, the planter did have a similar look and feel as other AAP and Norwood
pieces I have seen.
More easily identified, the pottery animals from Morton
Pottery are relatively heavy because the walls of the figure are thick.
An example is shown in Figure 7. If the opening of the figural planter
is fairly roughly finished, then the Morton Potteries book is the first
place I'd look. The bottoms of the pieces are usually unglazed.
Figure 1: Paper labels used by American
Art Potteries, left, and Midwest Pottery, right.
Figure 2: Flowerpots from the Morton Pottery Company.
.Figure 3: Bottom of a Morton Pottery
Company flower pot. The "Morton USA" mark was used on many of
the pieces from this pottery.
|Fig. 4: Relative
Weights of American Pottery
Made in Japan
Hull, Red Wing
McCoy, Brush, American Bisque
Figure 5: The Morton Potteries made a wide range of
animal planters. Click on the picture for a better view.
Figure 6: The glaze looks like airbrushed
Brush or Shawnee, and the weight of the planter is lighter like Shawnee
or Japan, but the "Norwood" sticker on this pottery pig identifies
it as being made by the American Art Potteries in Morton, IL.
Figure 7: "Inconsistency" is the
word of the day when dealing with Morton Pottery. Although these are both
the same planter, the figure on the left has the more typical opening for
a Morton Pottery figural planter: a relatively small opening with thick
walls and a rough-cut appearance.
Morton animal planters
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